New Legislation for Data Privacy Protection in Nepal

New Legislation for Data Privacy Protection in Nepal

The Privacy Act, 2075 (2018) is personal privacy law that was recently passed in the country of Nepal in 2018. In contrast to many other forms of legislation geared towards personal privacy which focus largely on the protection of personal data, The Privacy Act, 2075 (2018) contains provisions covering various aspects of privacy, including family privacy, privacy relating to residence, and privacy relating to property, among a host of other relevant topics. However, the law does contain various provisions concerning the collection and process of personal data, as the Privacy Act, 2075 (2018) establishes the basis upon which personal data may be collected and processed with respect to Nepalese citizens.

Which provisions of the Privacy Act, 2075 (2018) apply to the protection of personal data?

As the Privacy Act, 2075 (2018) covers privacy in a more general scope than many other international data privacy laws, the law does not provide definitions for commonly used terms such as data controller, data processor, or data subject. However, the law does defines personal data to include details relating to “health examination, property and income generation, business or transactions, and family matter”, among others. To this point, the Privacy Act, 2075 (2018) does establish the following requirements as it pertains to the personal data of Nepalese citizens:

What are the rights of Nepalese citizens under the Privacy Act, 2075 (2018)?

Under the Privacy Act, 2075 (2018), Nepalese citizens have the following rights as it pertains to data protection and personal privacy:

In terms of penalties relating to violations of the law, the Privacy Act, 2075 (2018) does not establish a state or independent regulatory authority for the purposes of enforcing the provisions set forth by the law. Nevertheless, the law does contain provisions that allow for the following sanctions, penalties, and punishments to be levied against individuals and organizations within Nepal to fail to comply with the law:

Although the Privacy Act, 2075 (2018) is not a comprehensive data protection law and contains broad provisions concerning the protection of personal data obtained from Nepalese citizens, the law does provide said citizens with a means to seek justice and compensation should they feel as though their personal privacy has been violated. As such, the passing of the Privacy Act, 2075 (2018) represents a clear step forward as it pertains to data protection within the country of Nepal, as they are one of many countries within Asia that have sought to enact legislation pertaining to data protection in recent years, including India’s Personal Data Protection Bill and Thailand’s Personal Data Protection Act.

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